Wormholes are purely hypothetical objects. The idea was born in the 1930s from a collaboration between Einstein and the physicist Nathan Rosen and implied the possibility of getting from one place in the universe to another by means of a shortcut through spacetime.
The abbreviation in question, also known as the Einstein-Rosen Bridge, is described as a space-time tunnel with a black hole-like object on one end and a white hole on the other. While the concept promises to be largely interesting, it wasn’t long before the theorists realized it wasn’t going to work.
Quantum Physics as a Solution?
The principle on which wormholes are based is therefore inconsistent with general relativity. Despite this inconsistency, some experts do not hesitate to show perseverance in hopes of finding the formula that would make it possible to change the situation. It turns out that negative energy is the missing piece of the theory developed by Rosen and Einstein.
However, such energy does not seem to exist. An alternative solution then is to take the quantum physics side, since general relativity is a classical theory. In other words, there could be a quantum theory to replace general relativity in relation to wormholes.
Approximate quantum gravity models
As our colleagues at Science Alert point out, there is currently no complete quantum gravity model. Still, there are several approximate models that can help us determine the right course. Among them is the Einstein-Dirac-Maxwell theory. This is so named because it encompasses aspects of Einstein’s theory of gravity, Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism, and Dirac’s theory of quantum particles.
A solution that would make it possible to cross a wormhole. Photo credit: Shutterstock / ktsdesign
A concept that doesn’t require negative energy
A group of scientists then examined the Einstein-Dirac-Maxwell theory to find a solution that would allow them to go through a wormhole. Eventually they discovered that it is theoretically possible to pass such an object. Also interesting is the fact that their concept does not require negative energy.
The problem is that only bodies in a quantum state can make the journey. Therefore, microscopic atomic clusters could get through this wormhole, but humans cannot. Suffice it to say that while this theory represents a great advance in the study of wormholes, it is far from allowing us to move in space-time.